logo Bantuan Teknis - Papuaweb - Technical Help honai/home page

(This page written for Papuaweb by Michael Cookson - Last Update 14 June, 2011)

This page has now been translated into Belorussian.

Technical Assistance for Papuaweb (FAQs)

(FAQs - frequently asked questions)

Question: I have emailed infopapuaweb.org but had no reply. Why?
Question: Am I getting the most up-to-date pages on Papuaweb?
Question: Why do pages appear strange (or not appear at all)?
Question: Is there any way to repair broken "links" or find "lost" pages on the web (Error 404)?
Question: How do I use PapuaWeb with a slow internet connection?
Question: How can I make a PDF document easier to read?
Question: Why are images in the PDF file unclear (and only in black and white)?
Question: Why do PDF files not print as they appear on the screen?
Question: The image does not fit on my page when I print. What can I do?
Question: I have a new flat screen monitor but the image is not sharp. Why?
Question: What the â,é,í,õ,ú...? Or how can I include non-keyboard characters in my documents?


Question: I have emailed infopapuaweb.org but had no reply.
      OR
I have received an email from infopapuaweb.org which was blank or contained a virus attachment. Why?
Answer: Email is not an infallible system of communication. Many hardware and software problems can interrupt or interfere with email traffic. Some of the most common problems relate to viruses that propagate (transmit and multiply) through email software. These viruses generally take the form of email attachments. Most of the computer servers that handle email traffic before it reaches your computer have virus filters. Almost all of these filters are automatic and may remove email attachments or delete entire emails if these are considered unsolicited (i.e. advertising) or suspicious (i.e. may contain a virus). On occasions harmless emails may be deleted before they reach their destination. For this reason emails addressed to the infopapuaweb.org may never reach the webmaster. If you have persistent problems contacting Papuaweb via email, you may choose to post a letter or fax the webmaster or other Papuaweb contacts.

Papuaweb does not send emails from infopapuaweb.org or webmaster@papuaweb.org. We prefer to use the email address of the acting webmaster (currently michael.cooksonanu.edu.au) rather than send impersonal emails which are difficult to authenticate. If you receive a message with any address ending in "...@papuaweb.org" you should treat such an email with caution. "Trojan horse" and "worm" email viruses typically send emails which appear to be from known sources. These viruses rely on networks of users who know one another to propagate (i.e. you are likely to open an unknown attachment if it displays the email address of a known or trusted source). Even users with up-to-date virus scanning software should be cautious about opening email attachments particularly if they have an unfamiliar file extension. Generally safe file name extensions for digital documents include: basic text (*.txt), rich text format (*.rtf) and portable document format (*.pdf). Generally safe file extensions for images include: joint photographic experts group (*.jpg) and graphics interchange format (*.gif). All other file extensions, including *.zip files may contain viruses. Viruses are also known to be transmitted in ".doc" files, embedded in automated routines (macros) within Microsoft Word documents. The latest version(s) of Microsoft Windows can disable all embedded macros in Word documents which makes it impossible for such viruses to propagate through ".doc" files.

Question: Am I getting the most up-to-date pages on Papuaweb?
Answer: When you visit a website, most internet browsers store these web-pages as "Temporary Internet Files." This greatly increases the speed with which you can access these internet pages if you re-visit a website/webpage because your internet browser uses the older file it has already downloaded, rather than downloading the same file every time you re-visit a page. This approach is fine for pages that do not change their content, but many websites regularly add new items which are not listed in the older versions of internet pages stored on your computer... and your internet browser may not detect these changes.

To be sure you are seeing the latest version of any internet page (including www.papuaweb.org) make sure your browser is set to refresh (with the latest page) each time you visit a website. In Microsoft Explorer, this preference can be set through the "Tools" pull-down window by selecting "Internet Options" (this should bring up a window with a section for "Temporary Internet Settings." Choose the "Settings..." button and then select to update every time. You can also be sure that your internet browser is offering you the latest page of any internet site you visit by manually clicking the "refresh" button on your internet browser (in Microsoft IE the one with the two arrows forming a circle). Alternatively, if you are a regular visitor to Papuaweb (or other websites) and want to be sure you are getting regularly updated pages, you may choose to routinely delete "temporary internet files" after a period of several days. This will ensure your internet browser refreshes all webpages on a regular basis without slowing down your access to webpages by forcing your computer to download new files each and every time you return to a page/site.

Question: Why do pages appear strange (or not appear at all)?
Answer: Different web browsers (Netscape Navigator, Internet Explorer, etc) interpret web pages in slightly different ways. This can result in variation in formatting and may, in some cases, even render content invisible to the user. Papuaweb has been designed to work on most browsers, but is best suited to versions of Internet Explorer 5.01 (or higher) and Netscape Navigator 6.0 (or higher). If you are having trouble with the formatting of pages on Papuaweb or other websites, you may like to download the latest version of Microsoft Internet Explorer or Netscape.

PapuaWeb is best viewed with your browser preferences turned off or set to "Arial" or "Arial Narrow" font. This preference can be selected in most browsers. For Microsoft Internet Explorer and Netscape Navigator, this change is made in the "font" command of "internet options" selection in the "tools" pull-down window. For further assistance in choosing your internet viewing preferences, refer to your browser's online help. (Papuaweb is designed to work well on any computer monitor with a resolution of at least 800 x 600 pixels.)

Finally, web pages may not appear if there is a problem with the URL (Universal Resource Locator - e.g. http://www.papuaweb.org) if the connection is slow (see below) or if the page is no longer on the internet. The following FAQ may offer a solution to these problems...

Question: Is there any way to repair broken "links" or find "lost" pages on the web?
Answer: Websites and webpages often change addresses (URLs) without warning and many websites and pages are launched without subsequent maintenance or may disappear from the www completely. In earlier versions of internet browsers like Microsoft Explorer, this generated "Error 404 missing link" messages. More recent versions of internet browsers such as Microsoft Explorer (running on an Windows XP "platform") generate messages like:
Error 404 missing link
Papuaweb has deliberately kept links to websites or pages which may have disappeared from the web because many www pages which no longer have current URLs can now be found by using the Internet Archive (www.archive.org). If you are trying to find information about a website listed in the Papua www-vl, simply right click the link and "copy shortcut" (the site URL - e.g. http://www.papuaweb.org), then paste this into the Wayback Machine for results. Note: The Internet Archive may also be used as a "mirror" site for website and webpages housed on "clogged" (overloaded) servers or where internet access is slow (see next FAQ) or temporarily unavailable. Despite occasional "glitches" (problems rendering archived records), the Wayback Machine is an incredible resource. You will be amazed !! (This FAQ is copied from the pages of the Papua www-vl.)

Question: How do I use PapuaWeb with a slow internet connection?
Answer: For users who do not have a fast internet connection, there are several ways to improve your results with PapuaWeb. By using the Site Map as your homepage, it is possible to bypass almost all of the images on the website. This will increase the speed with which you can access various parts of the site. To use this Site Map as your reference page (instead of the home page which always loads a new surprise image!), simply return to this page using the back arrow (button) on your web browser rather than using the honai (home) page icon at the top right of each screen.

Another important way you can reduce unnecessary time waiting to download documents is to find the specific material you are looking for by using the index pages more effectively. Most PDF documents in the digital library have a table of contents (TOC) page in PDF format (often included in the "title page" section, while others have both a TOC and an index page in PDF format (example). These should be the first places to search for specific documentation if you have a slow internet connection. Stand-alone CD ROM versions of Papuaweb are now available in the libraries of Unipa and Uncen and may eventually be made available to other other institutions in Papua and elsewhere in Indonesia. (And of course all www.papuaweb.org website resources are available free to anyone with a reasonable internet connection anywhere in the world.)

Question: How can I make a PDF document easier to read?
Answer: Many of the digital documents on this website are presented in Adobe's Acrobat (in Portable Document Format or PDF). Several tips are suggested to help you access these documents efficiently and view them with ease:
  • PDF documents can be scaled to any size. All PDF documents have an optimal size for viewing - a size at which the document is clearest and most easily read. This is particularly true of documents which have been prepared from a scanned copy of the original rather than from another pre-existing digital format (eg. converted into PDF format from Word, Excel, etc). While users may have their own preferences for viewing documents and may have different sized computer monitors, it is generally worthwhile "scaling" the document to optimise the viewing of PDF documents when they are first loaded into your browser. This should help reduce difficulties in reading these documents. Although Adobe Acrobat Reader has default (%) options for viewing documents, you can override these by typing any number into the scale box (as shown below). If you use the "+" and "-" buttons on the toolbar, you will change the size of the document in pre-defined increments. If a % scale box is not available on your Acrobat toolbar, you can make adjustments to the size of the PDF file you are viewing in the "view" pull-down menu or click here to download the latest version of Adobe Acrobat Reader.
  • For people using LCD screens (typical on laptops) on recent Windows compatible operating systems, adjustments may also be made to optimize pdf viewing through the display control panel. This can reduce ghosting and shadowing effects which occasionally occur with PDF documents.
  • Since PDF documents are scaleable, this makes them an excellent way of storing images such as maps. PDF documents can be created either from vector-based (line-based) or raster-based (dot-based) images. When PDF documents have been created using high quality vector-based data, they can be greatly enlarged without losing image quality (they are not dot based images, so they do not become pixelated, or dotty!). For this reason, vector based maps are included on this website wherever possible (example). This is of particularly value to users with limited access to more expensive software for opening and manipulating images.

Question: Why are images in the PDF file unclear (and only in black and white)?
Answer: Most of the pages scanned into Papuaweb have been produced at 300dpi (dots per inch) or more in black and white. While this conforms to archival standards for digital document preservation it does not adequately represent images with shades of grey or colour. In the digitisation of documents containing images there is an unavoidable trade-off between the accurate representation of original images and file size. Scanning images to an archival standard in greyscale (256 shades of grey) or colour generates very large files which are difficult to download over the internet (and may even be difficult to open from a CD ROM on older computers). Generally when images are crucial or highly desirable accompaniments to text, they have been reproduced in greyscale and embedded into the PDF documents even though this creates larger than normal files (e.g. see Boissiere 1999). Where they are not embedded as part of the text, they may be listed separately (e.g. see the deClercq plates). In special cases book length texts will be reproduced (in html) with low resolution images embedded in the text and the option to download high-resolution images from these low-resolution samples (e.g. see Wallace 1869). While this is the most desirable solution to the problem of reproducing high quality images which are embedded in documents, it is extremely labour intensive.

Question: Why do PDF files not print as they appear on the screen?
Answer: PDF files (of scanned images) require large amounts of memory and computer processor unit (CPU) time. Some (often older) computers and printers may not be able to print large PDF files all at once. This is a particular problem on older systems if you are running other programs while 'background printing' (allowing the computer to print while using another program on the computer). If you are having problems printing PDF files, close all applications, re-open your website browser and try again. Depending on the configuration (and specifications) of your computer and printer, you may also improve printouts by printing a limited number of pages from a PDF document at any one time. In extreme cases, it may be necessary to print a document page by page (i.e. one page at a time).

Question: The image does not fit on my page when I print. What can I do?
Answer: This is a common problem with many older operating systems (but not with newer systems like Windows XP). The problem may occur for several reasons. The webpage you are attempting to print may be formatted to be wider (or longer) than the default settings on your printer. This problem may be resolved by adjusting the settings (in the tools section) of the internet browser you are using. The problem may also be caused by attempting to print a high resolution image which is wider or longer (has more pixels) than your printer can accomodate. A simple way to resolve this is to print your image through an image software program such as Adobe Photoshop or Microsoft Photo Editor. Such programs should allow you to set the printer output size (through page or printer setup options).
Another very simple way to overcome this problem is to control the printer output for every image. For this purpose, two extremely simple html programs are provided below. Right mouse "click" over (photo) and/or (image) and choose the "save target as" option and save each file. It may be desirable to save these files to your desktop for easy access (it is also suggested that you use the default names provided which are "print-photo" and "print-image"). These two programs - one for photos (.jpg) files and the other for image (.gif) files will allow you to copy any photo or image and print these at the maximum size for your printer (scaled to 100% the available paper size). This will prevent images only partially appearing on the page. This short html program is particularly useful for people who do not wish to manipulate an image before printing it (through a program such as Adobe Photoshop) or users who do not have access to operating systems which will automatically fit images to the page (e.g. Windows XP has an "image and fax viewer" with automatic resize options).
Once saved, copy any image or photo onto the desktop and change its name to "photo" (for files with ".jpg" file extension) or "image" (for files with ".gif" file extension). Then open "print-photo.html" or "print-image.html". This html program will recognise the photo and if you decide to print it, the program will automatically scale the photo or image to print at the maximum size allowed by your printer.

Question: I have a new flat screen monitor but the image is not sharp. Why?
Answer: Flat panel or LCD (Liquid Crystal Diode) monitors are any of the new generation of monitors used in notebook computers as well as many newer desktop computers (some are touch sensitive). The traditional CRT (Cathode Ray Tube) monitors can display a range of screen sizes (800x600, 1024x800, etc) depending on the size of the monitor and graphics capability of your computer without loss of picture quality. In Windows operating systems visit the display section of your control panel and then choose the "Settings" tab to see the current number of pixels (dots) displayed on your computer monitor. The newer LCD screens have what is called a "native resolution." If you set your display panel options to a resolution lower than this native resolution, the screen must interpolate (scale the image) to scale up a smaller image to fit into the area of the native resolution. While this problem is less apparent in the latest LCD monitors, poorer image quality and clarity may still be evident if the screen is not set to its native resolution.

If you are having trouble reading text at the size of your LCD screen's native resolution, one solution which will not result in a degraded image is retain the native resolution (generally 1024x800 or above) and change the font size. This can be done (again on Windows operating systems) by entering the "Display" Control Panel, then choosing the "Settings" tab and selecting "Advanced." A new window will appear under the "General" tab which provides pull-down options for DPI (dots per inch) settings for the monitor. Try adjusting this to 120dpi if this is not already selected. This will result in a larger standard font (for all programs running under Windows operating systems) while allowing you to operate the LCD panel monitor at its native resolution. Good Luck!

Question: What the â,é,í,õ,ú...? Or how can I include non-keyboard characters in my documents?
Answer: The most common extended characters required by (Western) European languages are included in one of the earliest character sets ever developed for computers, called ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange). In most standard word processing programs and a range of other applications (spreadsheets, databases, etc) these may be added to the keyboard character set by holding the "alt" key and typing the number that corresponds to the required character (caution: some keyboard shortcuts may be activated if you do not use the numeric keypad for this operation). The ASCII table for extended characters is reproduced below (the standard ASCII table is also available). If you would like to print or copy the table below, simply click on the table and it will be presented on a clean new web-page.

ASCII - EXTENDED CHARACTER SET (128-255)



Any other questions?
Please contact infopapuaweb.org.

  © Copyright UNIPA - ANU - UNCEN PapuaWeb Project, 2002-2008.

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