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Papua, Indonesia.

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Papua Barat, Teluk Cendrawasih, Papua Selatan, Papua Utara, Pegunungan Tengah

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www-vl Asian Studies
including five proposed new provinces...

West Papua, Cenderawasih Bay, South Papua, North Papua and Central Highlands provinces

www-vl Papua New Guinea
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belum tersedia dalam Bahasa Indonesia - not yet available in Indonesian.

Berita terbaru - Papuaweb - Latest news

These pages written by Michael Cookson for www.papuaweb.org.
(Last update - 24 Nov, 2008).

(Trouble with broken links or HTTP 404 Error: Page not found?)

An annotated guide to 131 Papua related websites or webpages with the general themes of:

GOVERNANCE, AGREEMENTS, MULTILATERALS, AID in PAPUA

Governance (local, national and international)

Unlike many other resources available on the World Wide Web, the following sites represent official positions of the Government of Indonesia and its various ministries, agencies, activites and policies. Most Indonesian Government departments now have websites (visit the Indonesian Government portal at www.indonesia.go.id) and some have English language content (see http://indonesia.elga.net.id/govweb.html for a list of such sites in the National Government). A range of provincial and district governments and branch offices of national government departments in Papua now have a web presence. Increasingly these sites are hosted locally despite some congestion on internet servers in Papua. You may need to be patient when visiting these sites.

New and newly renovated provincial government buildings punctuate the urban landscape across Papua due, in part, to the financial arrangements under Papuan Special Autonomy since 2001 (see http://www.papuaweb.org/goi/otsus/index.html- with a caveat for West Papua Province, see http://www.papuaweb.org/goi/index.html). This conspicuous expenditure by many government agencies is reflected in only a few websites including the portal of the Provincial Government of Papua (http://www.papua.go.id), the new MRP website (http://www.mrp.go.id) and the new Papuan Provincial Police site which just opened for business (with a '.com' company address rather than the '.go.id' official address promoted on banners across the provincial capital in July 2008). Polda Papua’s new web address (http://www.poldapapua.com/papua/index.php) presents a new image for the police in Papua with one of the most user-friendly, complete and systematic websites of any government agency in Papua. It even includes mug-shots of Indonesia’s most-wanted (such as Nordin M. Top) and Papua’s top police officials (see 'profil - pejabat'). The portal for the province of West Irian Jaya, established in 2003 and renamed West Papua (Papua Barat) in 2007, is still catching up with its better established rival to the east (see http://www.papuabaratprov.go.id). Key provincial offices of national departments, like the Bureau of Statistics, may be found via the provincial government portals or you can jump directly to their webpages for Papua (http://www.papua.go.id/bps) and West Papua (http://www.irjabar.go.id/bps). The Health Authority for the Port of Jayapura is represented by English language pages covering customs and health issues for the capital of Papua Province (see http://kkpjayapura-english.blogspot.com). This government 'blog' site is not yet listed on the information portal of BIKTA, the Agency for Information and Regional Communication of the Province of Papua (see http://bikda.papua.go.id).

Some district/regency/kabupaten 1 governments are on the web, but many of these are very new and often have limited administrative capacity. Since 1998, the province of Papua has been divided into two (Papua and West Papua) and the number of kabupaten expanded from 9 to 34 as well as the two municipalities of Jayapura and Sorong (see www.papuaweb.org/goi/nota/kabupaten-nov2008.pdf). This reflects a policy of division (pemekaran) in Papua (see Papuaweb's governance pages at www.papuaweb.org/goi/index.html) which has been strongly critiqued by some stakeholders in the region. Some kabupaten governments with a web-presence include: Jayapura (www.jayapurakab.go.id), Manokwari (www.manokwarikab.go.id), Kaimana (http://www.kaimanakab.go.id), South Sorong (http://sorongselatankab.go.id), Biak Numfor (www.biak.go.id), Merauke (http://kab.merauke.go.id), (www.jayawijayakab.go.id), (www.yapenwaropen.go.id), (www.paniai.go.id), and Pegunungan Bintang or the Star Mountains (see www.pegbintangkab.go.id), one of the most remote regencies in Indonesia.

The Regency of Fak-Fak has its own website (www.fakfakkab.go.id) which includes a remarkable collection of recent news stories, including a "Report on the Celebrations of the 37th Year of the Independent State of West Papua..." from the guerrilla arm of the Free Papua Movement "...in the jungle of West Papua province and under the command of General Titus Murip alias Kwalik" (sic, at www.fakfakkab.go.id/berita.htm?newsid=164 and dated 21 July 2008. It should be noted that Titus Murib and Kelly Kwalik are different people). By making such documents available online the Fak-fak government is dealing with politically sensitive issues in Papua with rare candor. It remains to be seen if such web postings issued from within the Indonesian civil administration will be tolerated for long by higher level functionaries in Manokwari and Jakarta - if they will be understood as progressive (inviting discussion and dialogue) or provocative.

In Jakarta, the national office of the Biro Pusat Statistik maintains webpages for all Indonesian provinces, including its own webpages for data from Papua (www.bps.go.id/profile/irja.shtml, see also the remarkable Statistics Indonesia website at http://www.datastatistik-indonesia.com). The Departemen Luar Negeri (Department of Foreign Affairs) hosts a website with recent speeches, press releases and a substantial archive (www.dfa-deplu.go.id), while many government agencies in Jakarta continue to restructure in the post-Suharto (Reformasi) era, some like the Departemen Keuangan (Department of Finance at www.depkeu.go.id) and the Badan Pengawasan Keuangan dan Pembangunan (The Supervisory Agency for Finance and Development at www.bpkp.go.id) retain their central importance in the administration. A range of other government agencies in Jakarta have responsibilities for national stability and development, environmental protection and the provision of basic services across Indonesia. Such agencies include the Badan Perencanaan Pembangunan Nasional (Bappenas or The National Development Planning Agency at www.bappenas.go.id), the Badan Pengendalian Dampak Lingkungan (Bapedal or the Environmental Protection Agency at www.bapedal.go.id) and the Departemen Pekerjaan Umum (The Department of Public Works at www.pu.go.id and their Building Information System at http://bic.papua.go.id). Other government agencies such as the Departemen Ketenagakerjaan dan Transmigrasi or the Department of Man-Power and Transmigration (www.nakertrans.go.id) and the Badan Koordinasi Keluarga Berencana Nasional or the National Coordinating Agency for Family Planning (www.bkkbn.go.id/hqweb/bkkbn/bkkbn.htm) have also played a significant role in Papua.

In 2000, the Indonesian Armed Forces (ABRI, Angkatan Bersenjata Republik Indonesia) completed a massive restructuring intended to address a variety of issues and bring new focus to their discrete roles as defense and policing organisations. The Tentara Nasional Indonesia (TNI www.tni.mil.id) in Papua has a significant Air Force Base on Biak Island (Angkatan Udara www.tni-au.mil.id) and other minor bases across Papua and West Irian Jaya while the Indonesian army maintains a presence across the provinces (Angkatan Daerah www.tni-ad.mil.id). Maritime security and surveillance operations are conducted by the Indonesian Navy which has a substantial base at Sorong on the western Bird's Head (Angkatan Laut www.tni-al.mil.id). Security in towns across Papua (and West Irian Jaya) is provided by PolRI, the Indonesian National Police (Kepolisian Negara Republik Indonesia www.polri.go.id) while their local counterpart, Polda (Polisi Daerah) take reponsibility for more mundane but none-the-less vital policing activities such as traffic management (lalu lintas).

The new National Ombudsman's Office (www.ombudsman.or.id), the National Law Commission (Komisi Hukum Nasional www.komisihukum.go.id), the National Human Rights Commission (Komisi Nasional Hak Asasi Manusia or Komnasham www.komnasham.or.id and the new Constitutional Court (Mahkahmah Konstitusi www.mahkamahkonstitusi.go.id) are vested with certain legal authority to oversee the activities of many of these government agencies.

Papuaweb provides several books online that help to explain the complexity of the Indonesian bureaucracy in a section of this website that details the past and present structures of the Indonesian adminstration (see www.papuaweb.org/goi/rangka/index.html). It also provides more general information on laws and legal instruments related to Indonesian governance in Papua (see www.papuaweb.org/goi/index.html).

Foreign relations: bi-lateral and regional organisations

The Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat (DPR) or Indonesian Legislative Assembly maintains a website (www.dpr.go.id) with information relevant to Papua (although it may take some time to become familiar with the DPR cataloguing system). The National Parliament of Australia in Canberra also holds a range of papers relevant to Papua (www.aph.gov.au) as does the Australian Department of Foreign Affairs (www.dfat.gov.au). The National Archives of Australia hold many of the older documents from these organisations (www.naa.gov.au) and a list of some NAA files relevant to Papua is available on Papuaweb (www.papuaweb.org/dlib/baru/naa-irian-050211.htm). Other governments with long-term relations with Indonesia also hold such archives. The extensive government files held by the Nationaal Archief of the Netherlands (www.nationaalarchief.nl) reflect Papua's history as a former Dutch colony and the importance of the enduring relationship between these two nations. Other important holdings related to Papua may be found in The National Archives of the United States (www.archives.gov) and British Governments (www.nationalarchives.gov.uk).

Many bilateral arrangements exist between Indonesia and other countries. Of immediate relevance to Papua are those related to border controls between Indonesia and Papua New Guinea and Indonesia and Australia (see www.papuaweb.org/dlib/tema/perbatasan/index.html). These affect a range of issues including immigration, customs and quarantine, exploitation of marine resources, and passage through national air space and water ways. Some details about these arrangements can be found at the Indonesian Director General of Customs and Excise website ((Direktorate Jenderal Bea dan Cukai www.beacukai.go.id) and the Australian National Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry (do a local search on www.affa.gov.au) and other relevant departments. The Government of Papua New Guinea hosts a government information portal with links to various PNG Government departments (www.pngonline.gov.pg). Other Missions (foreign Embassies) to Indonesia include the Netherlands Embassy (www.netherlandsembassy.or.id) and the British Embassy (www.britain-in-indonesia.or.id), both in Jakarta. The United States has a large Embassy in Jakarta and its online information and analysis about Indonesia reflects the importance of the relationship between these two countries (www.usembassyjakarta.org). Significant online content related to Papua can also be found on US Goverment websites through its central clearing house website www.firstgov.gov (be sure to search on this site using quotation marks if you are searching for phrases like "papua indonesia" or "west papua"). Europa, the European Union Online service (http://europa.eu.int/index_en.htm) offers documents and details related to Papua with results provided in any of the 21 official EU languages.

Tensions surface from time to time in most bilateral relationships. In recent years, incursions by foreign fishermen in the economic exclusion zones of Indonesia, Australia and PNG in the Arafura Sea have resulted in the confiscation of Indonesian fishing vessels by Australian maritime authorities (see map). The Department of Marine Affairs and Fisheries (Departemen Kelautan dan Perikanan (www.dkp.go.id) has intiated public information programs to address this issue (see cartoon). Recent reports also indicate the presence of Chinese fishing vessels in the Arafura Sea, infringing on the Indonesian economic exclusion zone off the south coast of Papua (see the China Daily newspaper report of September 22, 2005 at www.chinadaily.com.cn/english/doc/2005-09/22/content_479807.htm).

Tensions have emerged (again) between Indonesia and the Netherlands over the transfer of Netherlands New Guinea to Indonesian control. In 2002 the Dutch Parliament decided to initiate a review of the transfer process, including the New York Agreement (1962) and the United Nations supervision of the Act of Free Choice (1969) (see the background article in Inside Indonesia www.insideindonesia.org/edit79/p23-24_duim.html). Professor Drooglever was commissioned to conduct the review. After several years and an exhaustive consideration of relevant documents (see www.inghist.nl/Onderzoek/Projecten/Nederlands-indonesischeBetrekkingen1950-1963/archiefgids/index), his final report will be tabled before the Dutch Parliament in November 2005. Eager to downplay possible political repercussions to the bilateral relationship, the Dutch government declared in October 2005 that it considers the findings of the review to be "purely academic" (www.netherlandsembassy.or.id/html/news.cfm?id=146 or id=147 for Indonesian). The substantive findings of the report will be publically available as a publication of the Institute for Netherlands History (Instituut voor Nederlandse Geschiedenis www.inghist.nl/Nieuws/Actueel/06AFC) although the bulk of this document is in Dutch.

Similar concerns over the transfer of West New Guinea were raised recently in the United States by a review of US documents from the 1960s by the National Security Archive, a non-government group based at George Washington University (www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/NSAEBB/NSAEBB128/index.htm). The government's position with respect to this issue was reinforced by Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono's Presidential Address in 2005 on the eve of Indonesia's Independence Day celebrations and echoes earlier Presidential Addresses, such as the one delivered by President Megawati Soekarnoputri in 2001. A more troublesome issue for the US-Indonesia bilateral relationship, however, is the unresolved murder of two US citizens employed by Freeport Indonesia on August 31st, 2002 (one Indonesian citizen was also killed and more than a dozen Indonesian and US citizens were seriously injured). Although an indictment for the arrest of Antonius Wamang was issued in June 2004 (www.usdoj.gov/opa/pr/2004/June/04_crm_439.htm), it appears little progress has been made by authorities in Indonesia or the US in bringing the perpetrators to justice. Such issues have raised concern in the United States over the bilateral relationship with Indonesia and led to the inclusion of controversial clauses related to Papua in the key US legislation, the Foreign Relations Authorization Act, Fiscal Years 2006 and 2007 (Bill HR 2601 in the 109th Congress). While such issues pose challenges there are, in general, many more areas of agreement than disagreement in the bilateral relationships Indonesia enjoys with these and other nations.

The importance of cooperation between governments that share geographic and economic linkages with Papua and Indonesia makes several regional multi-national agreements of particular significance to Papuan researchers. Most prominent among these are the regional political and economic forums of the Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN at www.aseansec.org) and the Pacific Islands Forum (PIF) (www.forumsec.org.fj). These regional groupings reinforce the sense that Papua marks the geographic and political boundary between Southeast Asia and the Pacific. Similar multilateral government organisations exist to promote other networks in the region, like the Secretariat of the Pacific Community (South Pacific Commission www.spc.org.nc) and the South Pacific Regional Environment Programme (www.sprep.org.ws). Indonesia is also signatory to many international agreements, including CITES, the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (www.cites.org) which is intended to help protect flora and fauna in Papua and across the archipelago identified as threatened or endangered by the International Union of Conservation and Nature and natural resources (see www.redlist.org).

Development aid, donor governments and the United Nations

Aid programs in Papua fit broadly into one of three categories: multilateral aid (group of governments coordinated through some international institution to assist with a national government’s programs), official bilateral aid (one government working directly with another), and unofficial bilateral aid (foreign government or non-government aid directed to non-government institutions in the recipient country). Most of the aid programs in Papua are part of larger programs which target specific development issues in Eastern Indonesia or across the nation.

The United Nations is the most significant multilateral aid donor in Papua and has had programs there ever since the United Nations Development Program (UNDP at www.un.or.id/undp) took over the administration of the Fund for the Development of West Irian (FUNDWI). The United Nations has an internet portal in Indonesia with links to all the major UN agencies in the country (www.un.or.id). Other UN agencies that have been active in Papua include the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO at www.unesco.or.id), the United Nations High Commission for Refugees (UNHCR at www.unhcr.ch), the United Nations Children Fund (the UNICEF site in Jakarta is still under construction, but for details of their field office in Jayapura, try www.unicef.org/uwwide/ffo.htm). The multilateral World Bank (www.worldbank.org) and Asian Development Bank (www.adb.org) have also been involved in various aid projects in Papua.

Official bilateral aid has been a feature of many past aid projects in Indonesia. An example of a recent official bilateral aid program with a Papuan component was the Eastern Indonesia University Development Project (www.sfu.ca/eiudp), sponsored by the Canadian International Development Agency (http://w3.acdi-cida.gc.ca/home). However, these funds are now increasingly channelled towards non-government groups in attempts by many foreign aid donors to strengthen Indonesia's civil society and democracy groups (largely through domestic and foreign NGOs). Other foreign donor agencies which support (or have supported) government and/or non-government programs in Papua include ECHO (the European Community Humanitarian affairs Office at http://europa.eu.int/comm/echo/en/index_en.html), GTZ (Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit or the German Partnership for International Technical Cooperation at www.gtz.de), USAID (the United States foreign aid agency at www.usaid.gov) and AusAID (the Australian Government’s overseas aid program at www.ausaid.gov.au).

While some foreign aid is directed to Indonesian government programs or to non-government organisations in Indonesia or Papua, other government and non-government funding for aid projects is channeled through non-government umbrella groups, often in the form of block grants. In Papua, several groups like NOVIB (part of the Oxfam group at www.novib.nl), the joint Dutch Protestant Church development organisation (ICCO at www.icco.nl), and Bread for the World (www.bftw.org) have funded programs for many years. A number of other block funding agencies operating in Indonesia (most based in Jakarta) have been involved in supporting a host of local and provincial NGOs in Papua. These are discussed in the section on NGOs along with various funding agencies under specific sub-headings like environment, human rights, etc.

Emergency relief and health

International relief agencies have shown growing interest in Papua in the past few years. While many church groups have been involved in occasional relief work for decades, it was not until 1984/85 that a humanitarian crisis in Papua attracted widespread international attention. A failed uprising in 1984 and the ensuing Indonesian military crackdown on pro-independence activity, led to more than 10,000 Papuans crossing the border into neighbouring Papua New Guinea. While initial care for many of these refugees was provided by the Diocese of Vanimo (www.catholic-hierarchy.org/diocese/dvani.html) and other church groups in PNG, eventually the United Nations High Commission for Refugees (www.unhcr.ch) became involved in providing humanitarian assistance to some of these people, many of whom sought safety in isolated, makeshift camps inside PNG along the length of the Indonesian-PNG border. Sporadic reports of border crossing in the past few years suggest that some Papuans continue to seek refuge in neighbouring PNG (see Glazebrook's annotated bibliography at www.papuaweb.org/bib/abib/index.html) For more general updates on emergencies and relief responses in Indonesia, see "Relief Web", website for the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (Indonesia update page at www.reliefweb.int/rw/dbc.nsf/doc104?OpenForm&rc=3&cc=idn) and the United States Committee for Refugees (www.refugees.org). The Internally Displaced Persons (IDP) website considers such issues, with particular emphasis on peoples fleeing internal conflicts or environmental crises in Indonesia (www.idpproject.org).

In 1997/98, severe drought conditions (associated with the El Niño climatic cycle) led to localised crop failures and water shortages across much of Eastern Indonesia and Papua New Guinea. These problems were particularly serious in the central and southern highlands of Papua. By early 1998, the Regent of Jayawijaya acknowledged that government agencies were unable to respond adequately to this crisis. Famine, malnutrition and contaminated drinking water made many communities in the affected areas more vulnerable to diseases like malaria. The International Committee of the Red Cross (www.icrc.org and see www.un.or.id/recovery/icrc.htm), which had been involved in the mediation of a hostage crisis in Papua during 1996, became involved in providing emergency medical aid to these communities, as did Merlin (www.merlin.org.uk), Doktors van der Wereld (www.doktersvandewereld.org/dvdw.php?get=032) and Medecins Sans Frontieres (visit www.msf.org and www.delidn.cec.eu.int/echo-prob.htm) who have maintained a project in Papua ever since. Several other aid agencies were involved in drought assistance programs during this time and many mission workers and the Mission Aviation Fellowship re-tasked their routine operations to provide crucial support for the distribution of food and medicines. Eventually AusAID, and the Australian and Indonesian governments negotiated "Operation AusIndo Jaya" which enabled Australian Army helicopter crews to help distribute food and medicines to remote regions in Papua during 1998 (www.defence.gov.au). The United Nations Development Program and Bappenas (the National Planning Agency) host webpages with information about the 1997/98 drought and relief operations (www.un.or.id/recovery/default.htm or see www.un.or.id/recovery/irian.htm if your web browser has problems with "frames").

There are a range of routine, non-emergency health programs in Papua organised by churches, non-government organisations and government agencies. Some programs like World Vision's Women and Their Children's Health project (WATCH) have been concerned with the introduction of new practices and medicines into remote regions of Papua. Many WATCH project surveys and reports are now available on Papuaweb (see www.papuaweb.org/dlib/lap/watch). Further information about the project is available from World Vision (www.worldvision.org) with additional references to the project on the AusAID website in the form of annual activity reports and educational materials (http://globaled.ausaid.gov.au/secondary/casestud/indonesia/3/jayawijaya.html). Other programs have developed as responses to emerging public health crises, like the rapid spread of AIDs in Papua, which is being addressed by several local, national and international NGO programs like Family Health International's Aksi AIDS program (www.fhi.org/en/cntr/asia/indonesia/indonesiaofc.html). Despite its small population, Papua has infection rates second only to Jakarta (http://www1.rad.net.id/aids). Papuaweb has a page dedicated to HIV/AIDS in Papua with recent reports and updates on the official statistics for the pandemic in the province (see www.papuaweb.org/dlib/tema/hiv-aids/index.html). The Departemen Kesehatan or the Indonesian Department of Health (www.depkes.go.id) is the national agency with responsibility for controlling such problems and for the provision of health clinics, hospitals and health training programs in Papua. Updates on significant public health issues in Papua may be found by a local search on their website and they also provide a list of local government health clinics or Puskesmas (Pusat Kesehatan Masyarakat www.depkes.go.id/direktori.php?dir=pusk&keyword=91&hal=1).

Notes: 1. kabupaten was formerly translated in English as "regency" in official Indonesian documents and this term is still often used in Papua (vis-à-vis "district" elsewhere in Indonesia). See Papuaweb's note on Kabupaten in Papua and West Papua 1969-2008 at www.papuaweb.org/goi/nota/kabupaten-2008.pdf.


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